Livsmedelsteknik

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 244 (Livsmedels- och förpackningsmaskiner)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 10 aug 2021
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1.1 This document specifies safety and hygiene requirements for the design and manufacture of craft bakery and pastry depositors which:
a) are intended to be used:
— to deposit only pasty food (i.e.: cream, dough, batter etc.);
— to deposit only on trays;
— as standalone machines;
— with manual loading of the dough in the hopper;
b) are intended to be used with manual loading and unloading of the tray/s on/from the conveyor;
c) can carry out only the following movements and relevant directions (see Figure 1a)):
— Z: Vertical movement of the table and/or the deposit unit;
— X: Horizontal movement of the conveyor;
— Y: possible horizontal component of the movement only of the nozzles themselves inside the deposit unit;
d) are fitted with one or more hoppers whose capacity is ≤ 60 dm3 each; and
e) have a total length of the tray conveyor ≤ 1 600 mm;
f) have a vertical movement between nozzles and conveyor ≤ 200 mm;
g) have a maximum deposit performance:
— ≤ 60 cycles/minute with up/down movement of the table or the deposit unit;
— ≤ 100 cycles/minute without up/down movement of the table or the deposit unit;
h) have a maximum trays performance ≤ 4 trays/minute.
These machines are intended only for professional use.
NOTE The machine is provided for being used by one operator at a time.
The loading of the dough in the hopper can be done by means of a separate automatic loading system, but in that case the hazards arising from the use of the automatic hopper loading system are not covered by this document.
This document deals with all significant hazards, hazardous situations and events relevant to adjustment, operation and cleaning of craft bakery and pastry depositors, when they are used as intended and under conditions of misuse which are reasonably foreseeable by the manufacturer.
This document covers requirements for the safe operation of the machine, including loading, depositing, unloading, cleaning and maintenance.

1.2 The following hazards are not covered by this document:
— hazards arising from the use of an automatic hopper loading system;
— hazards due to packaging, handling or transport;
— hazards arising from electromagnetic compatibility issues;
— hazards due to dismantling and disassembling;
— hazards due to the noise emitted by the machine;
— hazards due to control devices;
— hazards due to operational stop;
— hazards due to selection of control or operating modes;
— hazards due to failure of the power supply;
— hazards due to surfaces, edges or angles;
— hazards due to combined machinery;
— hazards due to variations in operating conditions;
— hazards due to uncontrolled movements;
— hazards due to adjustable guards restricting access;
— hazards due to errors of fitting;
— hazards due to radiation;
— hazards due to laser radiation;
— hazards due to isolation of energy sources;
— hazards due to information and warnings on the machinery;
— hazards due to information and information devices.
The significant hazards covered by this document are described in Annex A.
1.3 The following machines are excluded from the scope of this document:
a) machines which deposit pasty food by means of needles (injection);
b) machines where the trays are put onto and/or removed from the conveyor automatically;
c) machines which require a blade for the cutting system;
d) domestic appliances;
e) machines for industrial production;
f) machines to deposit other products than food for bakery and pastry products.

1.4 In drafting this document, it has been assumed that the depositors falling within the scope are operated only by trained personnel. This document is not applicable to machines which are manufactured before the date of publication of this European Standard.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 19 aug 2021
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1.1 This document covers essential recommendations for dosimetry needed to conduct research on the effects of ionizing radiation on materials, products and biological samples. Such research includes establishment of the quantitative relationship between absorbed dose and the relevant effects. This document also describes the overall need for dosimetry in such research, and for reporting of the results. Dosimetry should be considered
an integral part of the experiment, and the researcher is
responsible for ensuring the accuracy and applicability of the dosimetry system used.
NOTE 1—For research involving food products, note that the Codex
Alimentarius Commission has developed an international General Standard
and a Code of Practice that address the application of ionizing radiation to the treatment of foods and which strongly emphasizes the role of dosimetry for ensuring that irradiation will be properly performed (1).2
NOTE 2—This document includes tutorial information in the form of
Notes. Researchers should also refer to the references provided at the end
of the standard, and other applicable scientific literature, to assist in the
experimental methodology as applied to dosimetry (2-5).
1.2 This document covers research conducted using the following types of ionizing radiation: gamma radiation (typically from Cobalt-60 or Cesium-137 sources), X-radiation (bremsstrahlung, typically with energies between 50 keV and 7.5 MeV), and electrons (typically with energies ranging from
80 keV to more than 10 MeV). See ISO/ASTM 51608, 51649,
51818 and 51702.
1.3 This document describes dosimetry recommendations for establishing the experimental method. It does not include dosimetry recommendations for installation qualification or operational qualification of the irradiation facility. These subjects are treated in ISO/ASTM 51608, 51649, 51818 and
51702.
1.4 This document is not intended to limit the flexibility of the researcher in the determination of the experimental methodology. The purpose of the document is to ensure that the radiation source and experimental methodology are chosen such that the results of the experiment will be useful and understandable to other scientists and regulatory agencies. The
total uncertainty in the absorbed-dose measurement results and the absorbed-dose variation within the irradiated sample should be taken into account in the interpretation of the research results (see ISO/ASTM Guide 51707).
1.5 This document is one of a set of standards that provides recommendations for properly implementing dosimetry in radiation processing, and describes a means of achieving compliance with the requirements of ISO/ASTM 52628. This document is thus intended to be read in conjunction with ISO/ASTM 52628.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.7 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

1 This document is under the jurisdiction of ASTM Committee E61 on Radiation Processing and is the direct responsibility of Subcommittee E61.04 on Specialty Application, and is also under the jurisdiction of ISO/TC 85/WG 3.
Current edition approved by ASTM April 1, 2019. Published XX. Originally
published as ASTM E1900–97. The present Third Edition of International Standard ISO/ASTM 51900:2021(E) is a major revision of the Second Edition of ISO/ASTM 51900:2009(E).
2 The boldface numbers in parentheses refer to the bibliography at the end of this document.