Jordkvalitet. Pedologi

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 26 maj 2018
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This document specifies laboratory methods for determination of the soil water-retention characteristic.

This International Standard applies only to measurements of the drying or desorption curve.

Four methods are described to cover the complete range of soil water pressures as follows:

a) method using sand, kaolin or ceramic suction tables for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −50 kPa;

b) method using a porous plate and burette apparatus for determination of matric pressures from 0 kPa to −20 kPa;

c) method using a pressurized gas and a pressure plate extractor for determination of matric pressures from −5 kPa to −1 500 kPa;

d) method using a pressurized gas and pressure membrane cells for determination of matric pressures from −33 kPa to −1 500 kPa.

Guidelines are given to select the most suitable method in a particular case.

Ämnesområden: Fysiska egenskaper hos jord
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 27 maj 2018
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This International Standard specifies a basic method of determining the particle size distribution applicable to a wide range of mineral soil materials, including the mineral fraction of organic soils. It also offers procedures to deal with the less common soils mentioned in the introduction. This International Standard has been developed largely for use in the field of environmental science, and its use in geotechnical investigations is something for which professional advice might be required.

A major objective of this International Standard is the determination of enough size fractions to enable the construction of a reliable particle-size-distribution curve.

This International Standard does not apply to the determination of the particle size distribution of the organic components of soil, i.e. the more or less fragile, partially decomposed, remains of plants and animals. It is also realized that the chemical pre-treatments and mechanical handling stages in this International Standard could cause disintegration of weakly cohesive particles that, from field inspection, might be regarded as primary particles, even though such primary particles could be better described as aggregates. If such disintegration is undesirable, then this International Standard is not used for the determination of the particle size distribution of such weakly cohesive materials.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 7 jul 2018
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This document specifies methods for the measurements of magnetic susceptibility of soils (κ) as an indicator of soil pollution with trace elements associated with Technogenic Magnetic Particles (TMPs) and describes related procedures, protocols and guidelines to be applied as a screening geophysical method of evaluation of soil pollution with trace elements. The results of measurements are used for preparing the maps of magnetic susceptibility of soils in the area of interest. From these maps, the areas of elevated and high magnetic susceptibility indicating high trace element total pollution load are discriminated for further identification of pollutants by geochemical methods.

This document is applicable to screening all TMPs-related anthropogenic emission sources including long-range transport of airborne elements, of which TMPs are carriers and indicators. Such emission sources comprise the majority of high-temperature industrial processes, where iron is present in any mineralogical form in raw materials, additives or fuels, is transformed into ferrimagnetic iron oxides (e.g. fossil solid and liquid fuels combustion, metallurgy, cement and ceramics industry, coke production, industrial waste landfills, land transport, etc.). This document is not applicable to screening anthropogenic emissions not associated with TMPs, e.g. organic pollutants or emissions from agricultural sources

NOTE Copper, zinc and other non-ferrous metal ores also contain iron (in many sulfides) as this element is abundant in almost all environments. During smelting, the iron occurring in sulfides is transformed into ferrimagnetic oxides (TMPs). However, in such cases, the proportion of TMPs and related PTEs is usually less than that at coal combustion or iron metallurgy, for example, and not all PTEs are physically associated and transported by TMPs. Non-airborne elements are deposited in the close proximity of the emission source, while TMPs can be used in these cases as indicators of airborne elements and of the spatial distribution of the total element deposition from a smelter in the area.

In rare cases, some soils are developed on the bedrock of the geogenically high magnetism, which may cause false-positive results. This influence can be though easily indicated by measurements of magnetic susceptibility along soil profiles. If the local bedrock exhibits extremely high magnetic signals, this method shall not be applied. Such cases are though exceptional.