Jordkvalitet. Pedologi

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This document presents a panel of the main methods to quantify the exchanges of greenhouse gases (CO2, N2O, CH4) and ammonia (NH3) between soils and the atmosphere. By setting out information on application domain, main advantages and limitations, the document assists document users to select the measurement method or methods most suited to their purposes.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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This International Standard defines rules for describing soil and its environmental context at a given site. This standard describes soil description made in the field. Sites may be natural, near natural, urban or industrial. The soil observations and measurements can be made on a project site level, on a plot level, on layer of horizon level and on specific soil constituents.

To be used in soil investigations this International Standard also describes how to describe layers of artificial material or layers that were not modified by pedogenetic processes s. str. and how to describe coarse material of natural or artificial origin.

NOTE 1 It may not be possible or necessary to record data under all the headings listed in these descriptions.

NOTE 2 An overall guidance for presentation of information from soil surveys is given in ISO 15903.

NOTE 3 Sampling is done in respect to series ISO 18400.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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This document gives general guidance on the selection of procedures for the establishment and maintenance of programmes for long-term monitoring of soil quality. It takes into account the large number of objectives for soil-monitoring programmes.

This document is intended to help provide a basis for dialogue between parties which might be involved in a monitoring scheme.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 183 (Geoteknik och geokonstruktioner)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 10 apr 2018
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This International standard specifies two laboratory test methods for the determination of effective shear strength parameters for soils under consolidated drained conditions using either a shear box or ring shear device. The shearbox test is generally used for the determination of peak effective shear strength parameters. The ring shear test is generally used for the determination of residual effective shear strength parameters of fine grained soils.

Residual effective shear strength parameters may also be obtained from shear box tests and peak effective shear strength parameters may also be obtained from ring shear tests.

This standard is applicable to the laboratory determination of effective shear strength parameters for soils in direct shear within the scope of geotechnical investigations.

The test method consists of placing the test specimen in the direct shear device, applying a pre-determined normal stress, providing for draining (and wetting if required) of the test specimen, consolidating the specimen under normal stress and then shearing the specimen. This shearing is imposed by displacing one part horizontally, relatively with respect to the other part of the specimen at a constant rate of shear-deformation. The shearing force and the horizontal and vertical displacements are measured as the specimen is sheared. Shearing is applied slowly enough to allow excess pore pressures to dissipate by drainage so that effective stresses are equal to total stresses.

The tests included in this standard are for undisturbed, remoulded, re-compacted or reconstituted soils. The procedure describes the requirements of a determination of the shear resistance of a specimen under a single normal stress. Generally three or more similar specimens from one soil are prepared for shearing under three different normal pressures to allow the shear strength parameters to be determined.

Special procedures for preparation and testing the specimen, such as staged loading and pre-shearing or for interface tests between soils and other materials, are not covered in this standard procedure.

NOTE 1 This document fulfils the requirements of the determination of the drained shear strength of soils in direct shear for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

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This International Standard specifies methods for the laboratory determination of the water flow characteristics in soil.

This International Standard is applicable to the laboratory determination of the coefficient of permeability of soil within the scope of geotechnical investigations.

The permeability test is carried out on a cylindrical test specimen that is either confined laterally by a rigid container or by a flexible membrane. The specimen is subjected to differential hydraulic head and the water flow is measured under either a constant or falling head. The results are used to determine the coefficient of permeability of the soil specimen. Tests may be carried out on undisturbed, remoulded, compacted or reconstituted specimens.

The calculation of coefficient of permeability assumes the application of Darcy’s law for laminar flow under saturated conditions.

The size of the specimen may not adequately represent the fabric features present in field conditions.

NOTE This document fulfils the requirements of the determination of the coefficient of permeability of soils in the laboratory for geotechnical investigation and testing in accordance with EN 1997-1 and EN 1997-2.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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Svarsdatum: den 13 apr 2018
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This part of ISO 21268 specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under

the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 2 l/kg dry

matter.

This part of ISO 21268 has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic constituents

from soil and soil material and the ecotoxicological effects of eluates with respect to micro-organisms,

fauna and flora. The test is not suitable for constituents that are volatile under ambient conditions. For

ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799.

NOTE 1 Volatile organic constituents include the low-molecular-weight components in mixtures such as

mineral oil.

NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic

constituents and optimum test conditions may also vary between different groups of organic constituents. Test

requirements for organic constituents are generally more stringent than those for inorganic constituents. The test

conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic constituents will generally also be applicable to inorganic

constituents.

NOTE 3 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic

contaminants are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological

testing.

The test procedure specified in this part of ISO 21268 produces eluates, which are subsequently

characterised by existing physical, chemical and ecotoxicological standard methods.

This procedure is not applicable to materials with a dry-matter-content ratio lower than 33 %.

This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to

describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal.

This part of ISO 21268 does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the

leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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This part of ISO 21268 specifies a test providing information on leaching of soil and soil materials under the experimental conditions specified hereafter, and particularly at a liquid to solid ratio of 10 l/kg dry matter.

This part of ISO 21268 has been developed to measure the release of inorganic and organic constituents from soil and soil material and the ecotoxicological effects of eluates with respect to micro-organisms, fauna and flora. The test is not suitable for constituents that are volatile under ambient conditions. For ecotoxicological testing, see ISO 15799.

NOTE 1 Volatile organic constituents include the low-molecular-weight components in mixtures such as mineral oil.

NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic constituents and optimum test conditions may also vary between different groups of organic constituents. Test requirements for organic constituents are generally more stringent than those for inorganic constituents. The test conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic constituents will generally also be applicable to inorganic constituents.

NOTE 3 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic contaminants are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological testing.

The test procedure specified in this part of ISO 21268 produces eluates, which are subsequently characterised by existing physical, chemical and ecotoxicological standard methods.

This test is mainly aimed at being used for routine and control purposes, and it cannot be used alone to describe all leaching properties of a soil. Additional leaching tests are needed for that extended goal. This part of ISO 21268 does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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This part of ISO 21268 specifies a test, which is aimed at determining the leaching behaviour of

inorganic and organic constituents from a soil and soil material. The method is a once-through

percolation test with water (0,001 mol/l CaCl2) under standardized conditions of flow rate. The

material is leached under dynamic hydraulic conditions. The eluates obtained can be used to determine

the ecological properties of the soil with respect to micro-organisms, flora and fauna. The test results

enable the distinction between different release patterns, for instance wash-out and release under the

influence of interaction with the matrix, when approaching local equilibrium between material and

leachant.

This test method produces eluates, which can subsequently be characterised by physical, chemical and

ecotoxicological methods in accordance with existing standard methods. The results of eluate analysis

are presented as a function of the liquid/solid (L/S) ratio. The test is not suitable for species that are

volatile under ambient conditions.

NOTE 1 Volatile organic constituents include the low-molecular-weight components in mixtures such as

mineral oil.

NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimise test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic

constituents and optimum test conditions can also vary between different groups of organic constituents. Test

requirements for organic constituents are generally more stringent than those for inorganic constituents. The test

conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic constituents will generally also be applicable to inorganic

constituents.

NOTE 3 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic

contaminants are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is also meant to include genotoxicological

testing.

NOTE 4 The test is generally not suitable for soils with hydraulic conductivities below 10-8 m/s (see also Annex

B). It might be difficult to maintain the designated flow rate already in the range of saturated hydraulic

conductivity between 10-7 m/s and 10-8 m/s.

The application of this test method alone is not sufficient for the determination of the leaching

behaviour of a material under specified conditions different to those from the test procedure, since this

generally requires the application of several test methods, behavioural modelling and model validation.

This part of ISO 21268 does not address issues related to health and safety. It only determines the

leaching properties as outlined in Clause 4.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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This part of ISO/TS 21268 specifies a test method to obtain information on the short- and long-term

leaching behaviour and characteristic properties of materials.

It applies to the determination of the influence of pH on the leachability of inorganic and organic

constituents from soil and soil material, and the ecotoxicological effects of eluates with respect to

microorganisms, fauna and flora. The test is not suitable for constituents that are volatile under ambient

conditions. The equilibrium condition, as defined in this part of ISO/TS 21268, is established by the

addition of predetermined amounts of acid or base to reach desired final pH values.

The test procedure specified in this part of ISO/TS 21268 produces eluates that are subsequently

characterized by physical, chemical and ecotoxicological standard methods.

For the purposes of ecotoxicological tests, the relevant pH range (see 9.2) will usually be pH 5 to 9.

NOTE 1 Volatile organic constituents include the low molecular weight components in mixtures such as

mineral oil.

NOTE 2 It is not always possible to optimize test conditions simultaneously for inorganic and organic

constituents and optimum test conditions may also vary between different groups of organic constituents. Test

requirements for organic constituents are generally more stringent than those for inorganic constituents. The test

conditions suitable for measuring the release of organic constituents will generally also be applicable to inorganic

constituents.

NOTE 3 For ecotoxicological testing, eluates representing the release of both inorganic and organic

contaminants are needed. In this document, ecotoxicological testing is meant to include genotoxicological testing.

This test cannot be used alone to determine the total leaching behaviour of a soil. More leaching tests

are needed for that extended goal. This part of ISO/TS 21268 does not address issues related to health

and safety. It only determines the leaching properties outlined in Clause 5.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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Svarsdatum: den 24 apr 2018
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This document provides guidance on the range of tests that could be necessary to characterize soil and

other soil materials intended to be re-used, with or without preliminary treatment. It is intended to be

of use in determining the suitability of soil materials for re-use, and the assessment of the

environmental impacts that might arise from re-use. It takes into account the different requirements of

topsoil, sub-soil and other soil materials such as sediments or treated soils. International Standard

methods are listed that might be of use for characterization.

Soil materials include natural soils and other materials (e.g. fill, Made Ground) excavated, stripped, or

otherwise removed from their original in-ground or above-ground location (e.g. stockpile), dredged

materials, manufactured soils, and soil treated to remove or destroy contaminants. For manufactured

soils, which are often made using excavated materials together with other materials such as “green

waste”, the characteristics of the components and of the manufactured product might need to be determined.

Note: The terms “excavated soil” and “excavated soil materials” are used for brevity throughout the standard

to embrace the range of materials covered.

The guidance provided is intended to cover a range of possible end uses, including:

- play areas for small children, including nursery schools, kindergartens, etc.,

- schools,

- gardens and other residential areas,

- allotments,

- horticulture,

- agriculture,

- forestry,

- recreational areas, e.g. parks, sport fields,

- restoration of damaged ecosystems,

- mining and industrial sites,

- construction sites.

It is not applicable to the placement of soil materials in an aqueous environment or to restore

underground workings. It does not address geotechnical requirements when soil materials are to be

used as construction material.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 535 (Karaktärisering av avfall, mark och slam)
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Svarsdatum: den 28 apr 2018
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This document provides guidance on the kind and extent of soil characterisation necessary for the evaluation of human exposure to substances present in the soil that could cause adverse effects.

It does not provide guidance on:

— the design or selection of numerical models that can be used to estimate exposure;

— potential exposure to radioactivity, pathogens or asbestos in soil.

NOTE 1 Overall exposure can be to potential harmful substances (PHSs) in soil, groundwater and air. Exposure to those in soil may be direct (e.g. through inhalation, ingestion, skin contact), or indirect (through consumption of plants or animals that have taken up substances of concern).

NOTE 2 The evaluation of the possible impact on human health of potentially harmful substances is most commonly required when these are present as a result of human activity (e.g. on old industrial sites) but can sometimes be required when they are present naturally (e.g. in highly mineralised areas).

NOTE 3 Soil characterization leads to soil quality assessment. The compatibility between soil and its use has to be assessed. Tools can be used to aid this assessment such a conceptual site model (CSM) and health risk assessment.

NOTE 4 Soil characterizations are help development of an overview of population exposure. Other international standards are available that can be helpful to characterization of other media (e.g. surface and groundwater), as possible way of contamination for humans.