Strålningsskydd

Ämnesområden: Strålningsskydd
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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This International Standard is applicable to medical electron linear accelerators i.e. linear accelerators

with nominal energies of the beam ranging from 4 MV to 30 MV, including particular installations

such as robotic arm, helical intensity modulated radiotherapy devices and dedicated devices for intra

operative radiotherapy (IORT) with electrons.

The cyclotrons and the synchrotrons used for hadrontherapy are not considered.

The radiation protection requirements and recommendations given in this International Standard

cover the aspects relating to regulations, shielding design goals and other design criteria, role of

the manufacturers, of the radiation protection officer or qualified expert and interactions between

stakeholders, radiations around a linear accelerator, shielding for conventional and special devices

(including shielding materials and transmission values, calculations for various treatment room

configurations, duct impact on radiation protection) and the radiological monitoring (measurements).

NOTE 1 Annex A provides transmission values for the most common shielding materials.

NOTE 2 Annex B provides supporting data for shielding calculation.

NOTE 3 Annex C provides an example of calculation for conventional device and standard maze.

Ämnesområden: Strålningsskydd
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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The scope of this document covers

— iodine sorbents for nuclear power plants, nuclear facilities, research and other nuclear reactors,

— iodine sorbents for laboratories, including nuclear medicine, and

— iodine sorbents for sampling equipment on sample lines.

This document applies to iodine sorbents manufacturers and operators in order to measure the actual

performance of these sorbents and their sorption capacity for radioiodine.

This document applies to granulated and crushed iodine sorbents based on activated charcoal

(hereinafter referred to as “sorbents”) used for trapping gaseous radioiodine and its compounds. This

document establishes the method and conditions for defining sorption capacity index in a laboratory.

Ämnesområden: Strålningsskydd
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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This International Standard specifies the minimum requirements for the design of professional programmes to monitor workers exposed to the risk of internal contamination via inhalation by the use of radionuclides as unsealed sources in nuclear medicine imaging and therapy departments. It establishes principles for the development of compatible goals and requirements for monitoring programmes and, when adequate, dose assessment. It presents procedures and assumptions for the risk analysis, for the monitoring programmes, and for the standardized interpretation of monitoring data.

This International Standard addresses the following items:

a) purposes of monitoring and monitoring programmes;

b) description of the different categories of monitoring programmes;

c) quantitative criteria for conducting monitoring programmes;

d) suitable methods for monitoring and criteria for their selection;

e) information that has to be collected for the design of a monitoring programme;

f) general requirements for monitoring programmes (e.g. detection limits, tolerated uncertainties);

g) frequencies of measurements;

h) procedures for dose assessment based on reference levels for routine and special monitoring

programmes;

i) assumptions for the selection of dose-critical parameter values;

j) criteria for determining the significance of individual monitoring results;

k) interpretation of workplace monitoring results;

l) uncertainties arising from dose assessments and interpretation of bioassays data;

m) reporting/documentation;

n) quality assurance.

This International Standard does not address the following:

— monitoring and internal dosimetry for the workers exposed to laboratory use of radionuclides such as radioimmunoassay techniques;

— monitoring and internal dosimetry for the workers involved in the operation, maintenance, and servicing of PET cyclotrons;

— detailed descriptions of measuring methods and techniques;

— dosimetry for litigation cases;

— modelling for the improvement of internal dosimetry;

— the potential influence of medical treatment of the internal contamination;

— the investigation of the causes or implications of an exposure;

— dosimetry for ingestion exposures and for contaminated wounds.

Ämnesområden: Strålningsskydd
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
Se merSe mindre
 

This document provides guidelines and performance criteria for sampling airborne radioactive substances in the workplace. Emphasis is on health protection of workers in the indoor environment.

This document provides best practices and performance-based criteria for the use of air sampling devices and systems, including retrospective samplers and continuous air monitors. Specifically, this document covers air sampling program objectives, design of air sampling and monitoring programs to meet program objectives, methods for air sampling and monitoring in the workplace, and quality assurance to ensure system performance toward protecting workers against unnecessary inhalation exposures.

The primary purpose of the surveillance of airborne activity concentrations in the workplace is to evaluate and mitigate inhalation hazards to workers in facilities where these can become airborne. A comprehensive surveillance program can be used to

— determine the effectiveness of administrative and engineering controls for confinement,

— measure activity concentrations of radioactive substances,

— alert workers to high activity concentrations in the air,

— aid in estimating worker intakes when bioassay methods are unavailable,

— determine signage or posting requirements for radiation protection, and

— determine appropriate protective equipment and measures.

Air sampling techniques consist of two general approaches. The first approach is retrospective sampling, in which the air is sampled, the collection medium is removed and taken to a radiation detector system and analysed for radioactive substance, and the concentration results made available at a later time. In this context, the measured air concentrations are evaluated retrospectively. The second approach is continuous real-time air monitoring so that workers can be warned that a significant release of airborne radioactivity may have just occurred. In implementing an effective air sampling program, it is important to achieve a balance between the two general approaches. The specific balance depends on hazard level of the work and the characteristics of each facility.

A special component of the second approach which can apply, if properly implemented, is the preparation of continuous air monitoring instrumentation and protocols. This enables radiation protection monitoring of personnel that have been trained and fitted with personal protective equipment (PPE) that permit pre-planned, defined, extended stay time in elevated concentrations of airborne radioactive substances. Such approaches can occur either as part of a planned re-entry of a contaminated area following an accidental loss of containment for accident assessment and recovery, or part of a project which involves systematic or routine access to radioactive substances (e.g. preparing process material containing easily aerosolized components), or handling objects such as poorly characterized waste materials that may contain radioactive contaminants that could be aerosolized when handled during repackaging. In this special case, the role of continuous air monitoring is to provide an alert to health physics personnel that the air concentrations of concern have exceeded a threshold such that the planned level of protection afforded by PPE has been or could be exceeded. This level would typically be many 10’s or 100’s of times higher than the derived air concentration (DAC) established for unprotected workers. The monitoring alarm or alert would therefore be designed not to be confused with the normal monitoring alarm, and the action taken in response would be similarly targeted at the specific site and personnel involved.

The air sampling strategy should be designed to minimize internal exposures and balanced with social, technical, economic, practical, and public policy considerations that are associated with the use of the radioactive substance.

A comprehensive air sampling strategy should also consider that the air sampling program is only one element of a broader radiation protection program. Therefore, individuals involved with the air sampling program should interact with personnel working in other elements of the radiation protection program, such as contamination control and internal dosimetry.

This document does not address outdoor air sampling, effluent monitoring, or radon measurements.