Metrologi och mätning. Fysikaliska fenomen

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 7 maj 2021
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This document addresses aspects of management of solid biomedical radioactive waste from its generation in nuclear medicine facilities to final clearance and disposal, as well as the manner to establish an effective program for biomedical radioactive waste management.

Liquid and gaseous wastes are excluded from the scope of the document, but solid waste includes spent and surplus solutions of radionuclides contained in vials, tubes or syringes. Therefore, this document should be useful for any nuclear medicine facilities dealing with in vivo medical applications of radionuclides and consequently with the waste associated with such applications.

This document provides a list of the main radionuclides used in nuclear medicine facility and their main physical characteristics, as well as the radioactive waste management program for their sorting, collection, packaging and labelling, radioactivity surveys and decay storage, clearance levels, and transportation, if necessary, until their ultimate disposal or discharge.

This document may also be useful as guidance for regulatory bodies.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 24 maj 2021
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This document specifies the general requirements to carry out radionuclides tests, including sampling of soil including rock from bedrock and ore as well as of construction materials and products, pottery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.

For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

This document is addressed to people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soils for the purpose of radiation protection. This concerns soils from gardens and farmland, urban or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.

This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the extent of the scope of testing activities. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling or testing, the requirements of those clauses do not apply.

This document is to be used in conjunction with other parts of ISO 18589 that outline the setting up of programmes and sampling techniques, methods of general processing of samples in the laboratory and also methods for measuring the radioactivity in soil. Its purpose is the following:

— define the main terms relating to soils, sampling, radioactivity and its measurement;

— describe the origins of the radioactivity in soils;

— define the main objectives of the study of radioactivity in soil samples;

— present the principles of studies of soil radioactivity;

— identify the analytical and procedural requirements when measuring radioactivity in soil.

This document is applicable if radionuclide measurements for the purpose of radiation protection are to be made in the following cases:

— initial characterization of radioactivity in the environment;

— routine surveillance of the impact of nuclear installations or of the evolution of the general territory;

— investigations of accident and incident situations;

— planning and surveillance of remedial action;

— decommissioning of installations or clearance of materials.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 24 maj 2021
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This document describes a method for measuring 238Pu and 239 + 240 isotopes in soil by alpha spectrometry samples using chemical separation techniques.

The method can be used for any type of environmental study or monitoring. These techniques can also be used for measurements of very low levels of activity, one or two orders of magnitude less than the level of natural alpha-emitting radionuclides.

The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].

The mass of the test portion required depends on the assumed activity of the sample and the desired detection limit. In practice, it can range from 0,1 g to 100 g of the test sample.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 24 maj 2021
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This document describes the principles for the measurement of the activity of 90Sr in equilibrium with 90Y and 89Sr, pure beta emitting radionuclides, in soil samples. Different chemical separation methods are presented to produce strontium and yttrium sources, the activity of which is determined using proportional counters (PC) or liquid scintillation counters (LSC). 90Sr can be obtained from the test samples when the equilibrium between 90Sr and 90Y is reached or through direct 90Y measurement. The selection of the measuring method depends on the origin of the contamination, the characteristics of the soil to be analysed, the required accuracy of measurement and the resources of the available laboratories.

These methods are used for soil monitoring following discharges, whether past or present, accidental or routine, liquid or gaseous. It also covers the monitoring of contamination caused by global nuclear fallout.

In case of recent fallout immediately following a nuclear accident, the contribution of 89Sr to the total amount of strontium activity will not be negligible. This standard provides the measurement method to determine the activity of 90Sr in presence of 89Sr.

The test methods described in this document can also be used to measure the radionuclides in sludge, sediment, construction material and products by following proper sampling procedure.

Using samples sizes of 20 g and counting times of 1 000 min, detection limits of (0,1 to 0,5) Bq·kg-1 can be achievable for 90Sr using conventional and commercially available proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter when the presence of 89Sr can be neglected. If 89Sr is present in the test sample, detection limits of (1 to 2) Bq·kg-1 can be obtained for both 90Sr and 89Sr using the same sample size, counting time and proportional counter or liquid scintillation counter as in the previous situation.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 24 maj 2021
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This document provides a method that allows an estimation of gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters present in soil samples. It applies, essentially, to systematic inspections based on comparative measurements or to preliminary site studies to guide the testing staff both in the choice of soil samples for measurement as a priority and in the specific analysis methods for implementation.

The gross α or β radioactivity is generally different from the sum of the effective radioactivities of the radionuclides present since, by convention, the same alpha counting efficiency is assigned for all the alpha emissions and the same beta counting efficiency is assigned for all the beta emissions.

Soil includes rock from bedrock and ore as well as construction materials and products, potery, etc. using naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM), e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use.

The test methods described in this document can also be used to assess gross radioactivity of alpha- and beta-emitters in sludge, sediment, construction material and products following proper sampling procedure[2][3][4][5][7][8].

For simplification, the term "soil" used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 110 (Akustik och buller)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 1 jun 2021
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This document applies to hearing aid fitting management (HAFM) services offered by hearing aid professionals (HAP) when providing benefit for their clients. The provision of hearing aids relies on the knowledge and practices of a hearing aid professional, to ensure the proper fitting and adequate service in the interest of the client with hearing loss.

This document specifies general processes of HAFM from the client profile to the follow-up through administering, organising and controlling hearing aid fitting through all stages. It also specifies important preconditions such as education, facilities and systems that are required to ensure proper services.

The focus of this document is the services offered to the majority of adult clients with hearing impairment. It is recognized that certain populations with hearing loss such as children, persons with other disabilities or persons with implantable devices can require services outside the scope of this document. This document generally applies to air conduction hearing aids and for the most part also to bone conduction devices.

Hearing loss can be a consequence of serious medical conditions. Hearing aid professionals are not in a position to diagnose or treat such conditions. When assisting clients seeking hearing rehabilitation without prior medical examination, hearing aid professionals are expected to be observant of symptoms of such conditions and refer to proper medical care.

Further to the main body of the document, which specifies the HAFM requirements and processes, several informative annexes are provided. Appropriate education of hearing aid professionals is vital for exercising HAFM. Annex A defines the competencies required for the HAFM processes. Annex B offers a recommended curriculum for the education of hearing aid professionals. Annex C is an example of an appropriate fitting room. Annex D gives guidance on the referral of clients for medical or other specialist examination and treatment. Annex E is a recommendation for important information to be exchanged with the client during the process of HAFM. Annex F is a comprehensive terminology list offering definitions of the most current terms related to HAFM.

It is the intention that these annexes be helpful to those who wish to deliver HAFM of the highest quality.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 507 (Tekniska produktspecifikationer (TPS))
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 9 jun 2021
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The purpose of this document is to define metrological characteristics and methods for testing CMSs that use the principle of CT (based on X-ray attenuation contrast) as a single sensor and which are dedicated to dimensional measurements of technical workpieces. This excludes medical imaging, medical dimensional measurements and native non-destructive (material) testing applications of CT (e.g. defect analyses). The intention of this document is to achieve – where possible – comparability with the metrological characteristics of CMSs employing tactile probes and/or optical sensors.

CMSs which use sensors other than CT are covered by this document if such sensors are used for setting up and preparing measurements for which CT is used, only.

NOTE CMSs which use other sensors together with CT to perform measurements can be specified and tested using ISO 10360-9.

This document covers CMSs which use CT as a measurement technology and which employ various hardware configurations (Annex A) and different scanning modes (Annex B). This document defines metrological characteristics and methods for testing maximum permissible errors (MPEs) that are intended specifically for non-gradient, homogeneous mono-materials, i.e. measurements of reference standards that consist of only one (relevant) material that has no relevant lateral or spatial gradient in the attenuation of X-rays.

This document does not define metrological characteristics or related testing methods that are dedicated to measuring the influence of surface roughness on CT-based CMS measurements or vice-versa (measuring roughness with CT-based CMSs).

For measuring limits of lateral structures below a certain resolution limit, Annex E mentions two types of resolution statements which the manufacturer provided as optional metrological characteristics.

This document establishes the following aspects necessary when using CT:

— Reference standards usable as alternatives to gauge blocks (Annex C)

— Definition of metrological characteristics for various operating conditions

— Notes on the impact on the measurement of, for example, environmental conditions, mathematical data filters and the nature of the measurement standard’s surface