Metrologi och mätning. Fysikaliska fenomen

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 111 (Vibration och stöt)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 18 okt 2021
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This document describes the general requirements for evaluating the vibration of various coupled industrial machine types with a power above 15 kW and operating speeds between 120 min-1 and 30 000 min-1 when measurements are made in-situ. Guidelines for applying evaluation criteria are provided for measurements taken on non-rotating and rotating parts under normal operating conditions. The guidelines are presented in terms of both steady running vibration and any changes to vibration amplitude, which can occur in these steady values. The numerical values presented are intended to serve as guidelines based on worldwide machine experience, but shall be applied with due regard to specific machine features which may cause these values to be inappropriate. In general, the condition of a machine is assessed by consideration of both the shaft vibration and the associated structural vibration, as well as specific frequency components, which may not relate to the broadband severity values presented.
The machine types covered by this document include:
a) steam turbines and generators with outputs less than or equal to 40 MW (see Note 1 and Note 2);
b) steam turbines and generators with outputs greater than 40 MW which normally operate at speeds other than 1 500 min-1, 1 800 min-1, 3 000 min-1 or 3 600 min-1 (although generators seldom fall into this category) (see Note 1 and Note 2);
c) rotary compressors (see Note 2);
d) industrial gas turbines with outputs less than or equal to 3 MW (see Note 2 and Note 3);
e) turbofans (see Note 2);
f) electric motors of any type (see Note 4);
g) rolls and mills (see Note 5);
h) conveyors (see Note 5);
i) variable speed couplings;
j) blowers or fans (see Note 6).
NOTE 1 Land based steam turbines, gas turbines and generators of greater than 40 MW capacity, which run at 1500 min-1, 1800 min-1, 3000 min-1 or 3600 min-1 are covered by the requirements of ISO 20816-2; generators in hydro-electric plants are covered by ISO 20816-5;
NOTE 2 The proposed part 10 of this series of standards will be developed to cover high speed turbo-machinery. When that is completed, some machine types will be excluded from the scope of this document.
NOTE 3 Gas turbines of power greater than 3 MW are covered by ISO 20816-4
NOTE 4 When a motor is coupled to a machine covered by another part of ISO20816, the motor falls under this part if the coupling is flexible, but falls under the other standard if the coupling is rigid;

NOTE5 Machinery including a geared stage can fall under the scope of this document. However, the information relating to gearboxes - in particular, the conditions for performing acceptance tests and the influence of operating conditions (given in ISO 20816-9) - shall be taken into account when evaluating the vibration of gearboxes;
NOTE 6 The vibration criteria presented in this document are generally only applicable to fans with power ratings greater than 300 kW or fans which are not flexibly supported. As and when circumstances permit, recommendations for other types of fans, including those of lightweight sheet-metal construction, will be prepared. Until these recommendations are available, classifications can be agreed between the manufacturer and the customer, using results of previous operational experience, see also ISO 14694[4].
The following types of industrial machine are excluded from this document:
k) land-based gas turbines, steam turbines and generators with power outputs greater than 40 MW and speeds of 1 500 min-1, 1 800 min-1, 3 000 min-1 or 3 600 min-1 (see ISO 20816-2);
l) gas turbine sets with power outputs greater than 3 MW (see ISO 20816-4);
m) machine sets in hydraulic power generating and pumping plants (see ISO 20816-5);
n) reciprocating machines and machines solidly coupled to reciprocating machines (see ISO 20816-6);
o) rotodynamic pumps and any integrated or solidly coupled electric motors where the impeller is mounted directly on the motor shaft or is rigidly attached to it (see ISO 10816-7);
p) reciprocating compressor systems (See ISO 20816-8);
q) rotary positive displacement compressors (e. g. screw compressors);
r) submerged motor-pumps;
s) wind turbines (see ISO 10816-21).
The requirements of this document apply to in-situ broad-band vibration measurements taken on the shafts, bearings, bearing pedestals, or housings of machines under steady-state operating conditions within their nominal operating speed range. The requirements relate to both acceptance testing and operational monitoring. The evaluation criteria included in this document can be applied to both continuous and non-continuous monitoring situations.
The requirements of this document cover machines which may have gears or rolling element bearings, but do not address the diagnostic evaluation of the condition of those gears or bearings. (See ISO 20816-9).
The requirements in this standard are applicable only for the vibration produced by the machine set itself and not for vibration which is transmitted to the machine set from external sources.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 111 (Vibration och stöt)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 1 nov 2021
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This document gives guidance for the identification of the following:
a) The typical architectures of touch-down bearing systems to show which components are likely to comprise such systems and which functions these components provide;
b) The functional targets required of touch-down bearing systems so that clear performance targets can be formed for touch-down bearing systems with an unambiguous terminology for such performance targets;
c) Elements to be considered in the design of the dynamic system such that rotordynamic performance can be optimized, both on touch-down bearings and on active magnetic bearings (AMBs);
d) The environmental factors that have significant impact on touch-down bearing system performance allowing optimization of overall machine design;
e) The AMB operational conditions that can give rise to contact within the touch-down bearing system so that such events can be considered as part of an overall machine design. It also considers failure modes within the AMB system that can give rise to a contact event. This ensures that the specification of the touch-down bearings covers all operational requirements;
f) The most commonly encountered failure modes within the touch-down bearings and typical mechanisms for managing these limitations;
g) Typical elements of a design process for touch-down bearing systems including the specification of load requirements, the sizing process, the analytical and simulation methods employed for design validation;
h) The parameters associated with acceptance testing of touch-down bearing systems which are considered during the design of such tests. This includes the test conditions and associated instrumentation to ensure successful execution of such testing;
i) The condition monitoring and inspection methods that will allow the status of in-service touch-down bearings to be evaluated and corrective actions to be taken when necessary;
j) The factors to be considered when designing the maintenance regime for a touch-down bearing system. This includes actions to be undertaken following specified events together with any actions performed on a regular basis;
k) The factors to be considered regarding other life cycle topics such as obsolescence management, de-commissioning, disposal and training.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 22 nov 2021
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This document provides guidance for:
— the sampling process of the aerosols in the air using filter media. This documentrt takes into account the specific behaviour of aerosols in ambient air (Annex B);
— the determination of the activity concentration of aerosols in the air knowing the activity deposited in the media filter;
— the operating use of continuous air monitoring devices used for real time measurement.
The activity concentration is expressed in becquerel per cubic metre (Bq∙m-3).
This document does not cover the details of measurement test techniques (gamma spectroscopy, global alpha and beta counting, liquid scintillation, alpha spectrometry) used to determine the activity deposited in the media filter, which are either based on existing standards or internal methods developed by the laboratory in charge of those measurements. Also, this document does not cover the variability of the aerosol sizes as given by the composition of the dust contained in ambient air [3],[4].
The procedures described here facilitate the sampling of aerosol bound radionuclides. It is supposed to conform to the national and international requirements for monitoring programmes safety standards of IAEA [5].
The characteristics of the sampling location (coordinates, type of vegetation, obstacles) need to be documented prior to commencing the monitoring. The guidelines of WMO include the criteria for representative measurements of temperature, wind-speed, wind direction, humidity and precipitation for all the weather stations in the world [6].

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 26 nov 2021
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This document specifies the general requirements, based on ISO 11074 and ISO/IEC 17025, for all steps in the planning (desk study and area reconnaissance) of the sampling and the preparation of samples for testing. It includes the selection of the sampling strategy, the outline of the sampling plan, the presentation of general sampling methods and equipment, as well as the methodology of the pre-treatment of samples adapted to the measurements of the activity of radionuclides in soil including rock from bedrock and ore, construction materials and products, potery, etc. using NORM or those from technological processes involving Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) e.g. the mining and processing of mineral sands or phosphate fertilizer production and use, as well as of sludge and sediment.
For simplification, the term “soil” used in this document covers the set of elements mentioned above.
This document is addressed to the people responsible for determining the radioactivity present in soil for the purpose of radiation protection. It is applicable to soil from gardens, farmland, urban, or industrial sites, as well as soil not affected by human activities.
This document is applicable to all laboratories regardless of the number of personnel or the range of the testing performed. When a laboratory does not undertake one or more of the activities covered by this document, such as planning, sampling, or testing, the corresponding requirements do not apply.
NOTE The term “laboratory” is applicable to all identified entities (individuals, organizations,..) performing planning, sampling, test and calibration.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 110 (Akustik och buller)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 3 dec 2021
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This document specifies an engineering method for measuring the interior sound of road vehicles of categories M and N under typical driving conditions. It does not apply to agricultural tractors and field machinery.
It specifies the conditions for obtaining reproducible and comparable measurements of sound pressure levels inside a vehicle.
These measurements are used to obtain a representative average sound level during a typical driving cycle to enable assessment of adverse effects on human health.
The results may be used for
— standardized assessment of interior sound for comparisons (e.g. benchmark, consumer information programs);
— verification tests, to decide whether or not the sound inside the vehicle is in accordance to specifications;
— certification purposes, for example for evaluation of sound in relation to labour or for general health standards;
— monitoring tests, in order to check that the sound inside the vehicles is still within prescribed limits, and the noticeable changes have not occurred since delivery, or between individual units of a consignment of vehicles.
This document does evaluate the exposure to interior sound of vehicles in a way as it is commonly used for scientific effects on human health.
It does not assess maximum interior sound of a vehicle under extreme driving situations, as the today’s measured maximum sound pressure levels inside vehicles are far away from the risk to create instantaneous hearing damages.

Ämnesområden: Flöde i slutna system
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 432 (Hydrometri)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 6 dec 2021
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This document specifies general requirements, minimum performance requirements and test procedures for instrumentation used to measure either volumetric flow-rate and/or total volume passed of water in closed conduits. It covers all closed conduit instrument (CCI) technologies intended to operate in closed pressurized pipes and partially filled pipes. Requirements are expressed in volumetric units which may be converted to mass using the fluid density.
It is recognized that for some CCIs certain tests cannot be carried out.
The data obtained from the testing of CCIs in accordance with the requirements of the Measuring Instruments Directive [1] or EN ISO 4064-1 [2] can be used to meet, in part, the requirements specified in this document. However, for the avoidance of doubt, compliance with the requirements of this document does not equate to compliance with the requirements of the Measuring Instruments Directive or EN ISO 4064-1.