Petroleum och motsvarande tekniker

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 413 (Provning av flytande och gasformiga bränslen)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 2 jan 2018
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This document specifies a laboratory method for the determination of the distillation characteristics of light and middle distillates derived from petroleum and related products of synthetic or biological origin with initial boiling points above 0 °C and end-points below approximately 400 °C, utilizing either manual or automated equipment. Light distillates are typically; automotive engine petrol, automotive engine ethanol fuel blends with up to 85 % (V/V) ethanol, and aviation petrol. Middle distillates are typically; aviation turbine fuel, kerosene, diesel, diesel with up to 30 % (V/V) FAME, burner fuel, and marine fuels that have no appreciable quantities of residua.

NOTE For the purposes of this document, the term “% (V/V)” is used to represent the volume fraction of a material.

The distillation (volatility) characteristics of hydrocarbons and related products of synthetic or biological origin have an important effect on their safety and performance, especially in the case of fuels and solvents. The boiling range gives important information on composition and behaviour during storage and use, and the rate of evaporation is an important factor in the application of many solvents. Limiting values to specified distillation characteristics are applied to most distillate petroleum product and liquid fuel specifications in order to control end-use performance and to regulate the formation of vapours which may form explosive mixtures with air, or otherwise escape into the atmosphere as emissions (VOC).

Ämnesområden: Flytande bränslen
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 413 (Provning av flytande och gasformiga bränslen)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 2 jan 2018
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This European Standard specifies an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence test method for the determination of the sulfur content of liquefied petroleum gases (LPG) containing up to 0,35 % (m/m) halogens, and having sulfur contents in the range of 2 mg/kg to 50 mg/kg.

Other products can be analysed for total sulfur content per this test method; however, no precision data for products other than liquefied petroleum gases and for sulfur content levels outside the specified range have been established for this test method.

This test method may not detect sulfur compounds that do not vaporize under the conditions of the test.

NOTE For the purposes of this document, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction and the volume fraction.

WARNING — The use of this Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 413 (Provning av flytande och gasformiga bränslen)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 2 jan 2018
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This International Standard specifies a Procedure A using manual glass viscometers and a Procedure B using glass capillary viscometers in an automated assembly, for the determination of the kinematic viscosity, ν, of liquid petroleum products, both transparent and opaque, by measuring the time for a volume of liquid to flow under gravity through a calibrated glass capillary viscometer. The dynamic viscosity, η, is obtained by multiplying the measured kinematic viscosity by the density, ρ, of the liquid. The range of kinematic viscosities covered in this test method is from (0,2 to 300 000) mm2s over the temperature range (– 20 to + 150)°C.

NOTE The result obtained from this International Standard is dependent upon the behaviour of the sample and is intended for application to liquids for which primarily the shear stress and shear rates are proportional (Newtonian flow behaviour). If, however, the viscosity varies significantly with the rate of shear, different results may be obtained from viscometers of different capillary diameters. The procedure and precision values for residual fuel oils, which under some conditions exhibit non- Newtonian behaviour, have been included.

WARNING — The use of this Standard can involve hazardous materials, operations and equipment. This Standard does not purport to address all of the safety problems associated with its use. It is the responsibility of users of this standard to take appropriate measures to ensure the safety and health of personnel prior to the application of the standard, and fulfil statutory and regulatory requirements for this purpose.

Ämnesområden: Smörjmedel
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 416 (Smörjmedel och hydraulvätskor)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 11 jan 2018
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This European Standard specifies a procedure for determining the degree of aerobic degradation of fully formulated lubricants. The organic material in a fully formulated lubricant is exposed in a synthetic aqueous medium under laboratory conditions to an inoculum from activated sludge.

Biodegradation resulting in mineralisation of the organic material can be determined by measuring released CO2 in a total organic carbon (TOC-) analyser.

In contrast to existing test methods measuring released CO2 this method uses a precise preparation procedure for non-water soluble organic material.

The above mentioned method applies to fully formulated lubricants which

a) are water-soluble, non-water soluble or emulsifiable, and

b) are not toxic and not inhibitory to the test microorganisms at the test concentration.

The presence of inhibitory effects is determined as specified in this European standard.

This test method is focused on fresh water as test medium. Tests in sea water are currently not included in this method, but may be introduced later.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 416 (Smörjmedel och hydraulvätskor)
Källa: ISO
Svarsdatum: den 24 jan 2018
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This document specifies a method by which the fire hazards of pressurised sprays of fire-resistant fluids can be compared. Two sizes of propane flame are used to ignite and stabilise combustion of an air-atomised release of fluid. Measurements related to the rate of heat release, length of flame and density of smoke give quantitative information on the fire behaviour of the fluid.

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 415 (Motorbränslen)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 25 jan 2018
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This European Standard specifies requirements and test methods for marketed and delivered automotive liquefied petroleum gas (LPG). It is applicable to automotive LPG for use in LPG engine vehicles designed to run on automotive LPG.

NOTE For the purposes of this European Standard, the terms "% (m/m)" and "% (V/V)" are used to represent respectively the mass fraction, μ, and the volume fraction, φ.

WARNING — Attention is drawn to the risk of fire and explosion when handling LPG and to the hazard to health arising through inhalation of excessive amounts of LPG.

LPG is a highly volatile hydrocarbon liquid which is normally stored under pressure. If the pressure is released large volumes of gas will be produced which form flammable mixtures with air over the range of approximately 2 % (V/V) to 10 % (V/V). This European Standard involves the sampling, handling and testing of LPG. Naked flames, unprotected electrical equipment electrostatic hazards etc. are sources of ignition for LPG.

LPG in liquid form can cause cold burns to the skin. The national health and safety regulations apply.

LPG is heavier than air and accumulates in cavities. There is a danger of suffocation when inhaling high concentrations of LPG.

One of the tests described in this European Standard involves the operator inhaling a mixture of air and LPG vapour. Particular attention is drawn to the cautionary statement provided in A.1, where this method is referred to.

Ämnesområden: Fasta bränslen
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 412 (Fasta bränslen)
Källa: SIS
Svarsdatum: den 7 feb 2018
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I denna standard definieras metoder för bestämning av tre operationella mått på halten oförbränt i fasta restprodukter från förbränning, nämligen

— Metod A - Glödförlust

— Metod B - Totalt organiskt kol (TOC)

— Metod C - Restförbränningsenergi

Bestämning av glödförlust är den enklaste metoden men har nackdelen att den ger resultat som I viss mån styrs av de experimentella betingelserna. Glödförlust duger oftast mycket väl som driftsanalys för att följa variationer i förbränningsbetingelser vid en anläggning. För askor som ifråga om oorganiska komponenter inte är fullt oxiderade ger bestämningar av glödförlust resultat som är behäftade med ett systematiskt fel. Höga karbonathalter kan också leda till resultat som ger ett felaktigt mått på halten oförbränt.

Mera väldefinierade resultat erhålls via en specifik bestämning av resthalten av totalt organiskt kol (TOC) respektive bestämning av restförbränningsenergin. Dessa metoder kräver mera specialiserad utrustning för genomförandet och har karaktären laboratorieanalyser.

Metoderna är tillämpbara på flygaskor och bottenaskor, medan andra fasta restprodukter från förbränning exempelvis avsvavlingsprodukter omfattas när det gäller bestämningen totalt organiskt kol. Bestämbarhetsgränsen för metoderna är för glödförlust och totalt organiskt kol ca 0,3% respektive 0,5% (massfraktion) och för restförbränningsenergi 0,2 MJ/kg (motsvarar ca 0,6%).

Eftersom metoderna inte mäter exakt samma sak är resultaten från dem inte fullt ut jämförbara. För att tydliggöra detta har de samlats i en och samma standard. Varje metod har sina fördelar jämfört med de andra beroende på användningen av resultaten.

Ämnesområden: Flytande bränslen
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 415 (Motorbränslen)
Källa: SIS
Svarsdatum: den 5 mar 2018
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