Kärnenergiteknik

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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This document describes a method for determining the Oxygen-to-Metal (O/M) ratio in mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (U,Pu)O2 ± X pellets. The parameters given in the following paragraphs are relevant for pellets within a range of O/M ratio corresponding to 1,98 to 2,01. The method described in the document is adapted, with regard to the parameters, if the expected values of O/M ratio are outside the range.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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This document describes an analytical method for the electrochemical assay of pure plutonium nitrate solutions of nuclear grade, with a total uncertainty not exceeding ±0,2 % at the confidence level of 0,95 for a single determination (coverage factor, K = 2). The method is suitable for aqueous solutions containing more than 0,5 g/L plutonium and test samples containing between 4 mg and 15 mg of plutonium. Application of this technique to solutions containing less than 0,5 g/L and test samples containing less than 4 mg of plutonium requires experimental demonstration by the user that applicable data quality objectives will be met.

For some applications, purification of test samples by anion exchange is required before measurement to remove interfering substances when present in significant amounts. Refer to Clause 10 for a discussion of interferences and corrective actions. Purification is also appropriate in situations where the purity of the test sample is unknown or when it may fluctuate unpredictably in a manufacturing process.

Clause 11 discusses the changes in application of the method and methodology that can be applied and important considerations when selecting measurement parameters, while still remaining within the intended scope of this document.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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This document gives guidelines on the determination of the specific surface area of as-fabricated uranium dioxide powder by volumetric or gravimetric determination of the amount of nitrogen adsorbed on the powder, and can be applied to other similar materials, e.g. U3O8, UO2-PuO2 powders, and other bodies with similar surface areas, e.g. powder granules or green pellets, provided that the conditions described are fulfilled. Modifications using other adsorbing gases are included.

The method is relevant as long as the expected value is in the range between 1 m2/g and 10 m2/g.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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This International Standard describes a procedure for measuring the nitrogen content of UO2, (U,Gd)O2, and (U,Pu)O2 pellets. Nitrogen in nuclear fuel may be present either as elemental nitrogen or chemically combined in the form of nitrogenous compounds. The technique described herein serves to determine the total content of nitrogen excluding those compounds whose decomposition temperature is above 2 200 °C (most notably Pu and U nitrides).

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 8 jan 2019
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This document describes the ceramographic procedure used to prepare sintered (U,Pu)O2 pellets for qualitative and quantitative examination of the pellet microstructure.

The examinations are performed before and after thermal treatment or chemical etching.

They allow

— observation of any cracks, intra- and intergranular pores or inclusions, and

— measurement of the grain size, porosity and plutonium homogeneity distribution.

The mean grain diameter is measured by one of the classic methods: counting (intercept method), comparison with standard grids or typical images, etc.[2] The measurement of individual grain sizes requires uniform development of the microstructure over the entire specimen.

The plutonium cluster and pore distribution and localization are generally analysed by automatic image analysis systems. The plutonium distribution is usually revealed by chemical etching but alphaautoradiography can also be used. The first technique avoids the tendency for autoradiography to exaggerate the size of plutonium-rich clusters due to the distance the alpha particles travel away from the source.