Kärnenergiteknik

Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 17 nov 2020
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This document specifies gas leakage test criteria and test methods for demonstrating that packages used to transport radioactive materials comply with the package containment requirements defined in the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material for:

— design verification;

— fabrication verification;

— preshipment verification;

— periodic verification;

— maintenance verification.

This document describes a method for relating permissible activity release of the radioactive contents carried within a containment system to equivalent gas leakage rates under specified test conditions. This approach is called gas leakage test methodology. However, in this document it is recognized that other methodologies might be acceptable, provided that they demonstrate that any release of the radioactive contents will not exceed the regulatory requirements, and subject to agreement with the competent authority.

This document provides both overall and detailed guidance on the complex relationships between an equivalent gas leakage test and a permissible activity release rate. Whereas the overall guidance is universally agreed upon, the use of the detailed guidance shall be agreed upon with the competent authority during the Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C packages certification process.

It should be noted that, for a given package, demonstration of compliance is not limited to a single methodology.

While this document does not require particular gas leakage test procedures, it does present minimum requirements for any test that is to be used. It is the responsibility of the package designer or consignor to estimate or determine the maximum permissible release rate of radioactivity to the environment and to select appropriate leakage test procedures that have adequate sensitivity.

This document pertains specifically to Type B(U), Type B(M) or Type C packages for which the regulatory containment requirements are specified explicitly.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 17 nov 2020
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This document describes the ceramographic preparation of uranium dioxide (UO2) sintered pellets for qualitative and quantitative microstructure examinations.

These examinations can be carried out before and after thermal or chemical etching.

They enable

— observations of fissures, inter- or intra-granular pores and inclusions, and

— measurement of pore and grain size and measurement of pore and grain size distributions.

The measurement of average grain size can be carried out using a classical counting method as described in ISO 2624 or ASTM E112[3], i.e. intercept procedure, comparison with standard grids or reference photographs.

The measurement of pore-size distributions is usually carried out by an automatic image analyser. If the grain-size distributions are also measured with an image analyser, it is recommended that thermal etching be used to reveal the grain structure uniformly throughout the whole sample.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 17 nov 2020
Se merSe mindre
 

This document specifies the dissolution of powder samples of plutonium oxide for subsequent determination of elemental concentration and isotopic composition.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 17 nov 2020
Se merSe mindre
 

This document specifies the dissolution of samples consisting of MOX pellets or powders to provide suitable aliquots for subsequent analysis of elemental concentration and isotopic composition.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 17 nov 2020
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This document specifies a method for the determination of the isotopic and elemental uranium and plutonium concentrations of nuclear materials in nitric acid solutions by thermal-ionization mass spectrometry.

The method applies to uranium and plutonium isotope composition and concentration measurement of irradiated Magnox and light water reactor fuels (boiling water reactor or pressurized water reactor), in final products at spent-fuel reprocessing plants, and in feed and products of MOX and uranium fuel fabrication. The method is applicable to other fuels, but the chemical separation and spike solution are, if necessary, adapted to suit each type of fuel.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 17 nov 2020
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This document specifies a method of determining the apparent density and tap density of free-flowing uranium dioxide (UO2) powder which will be used for pelleting and sintering of UO2 pellets as a nuclear fuel.

This method can be used for different UO2 powder types including grains, granules, spheres or other kinds of particles. The method can also be applied to other fuel powders as PuO2, ThO2 and powder mixtures as UO2-PuO2 and UO2-Gd2O3.

This document is based on the principle of using a flowmeter funnel (see 4.1). Other measurement apparatus, such as a Scott volumeter, can also be used.

Ämnesområden: Klyvbara material
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 405 (Kärnenergi)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 17 nov 2020
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This document specifies an analytical method by spectrophotometry, for determining the plutonium concentration in nitric acid solutions, with spectrophotometer implemented in hot cell and glove box allowing the analysis of high activity solutions. Commonly, the method is applicable, without interference, even in the presence of numerous cations, for a plutonium concentration higher than 0,5 mg·l−1 in the original sample with a standard uncertainty, with coverage factor k = 1, less than 5 %.

The method is intended for process controls at the different steps of the process in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant or in other nuclear facilities.

Ämnesområden: Reaktorteknik; Korrosion
Kommittébeteckning: SIS/TK 146 (Korrosion)
Källa: CEN
Svarsdatum: den 22 nov 2020
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This International Standard specifies:

a) the determination of mass gain;

b) the surface inspection of products of zirconium and its alloys when corrosion tested in water at 360 °C or in steam at or above 400 °C;

c) that the tests in steam shall be performed at 10.3 MPa (1 500 psi);

This International Standard is applicable to wrought products, castings, powder metallurgy products and weld metals.

This method has been widely used in the development of new alloys, heat treating practices and for the evaluation of welding techniques, and should be utilized in its entirety to the extent specified for a product acceptance test, rather than merely a means of assessing performance in service.